What is a Mini Lathe?

"Black body with orange tool rest, Wen-3421 mini wood lathe in a white background"

Last Updated on January 17, 2024 by Larry

A lathe is a machine that rotates a workpiece and a mini lathe indicates the size of the machine and subsequent workpiece size compared to a full-sized, industrial floor standing lathe. As the smallest lathe size a mini lathe is sometimes also called a micro lathe or pen lathe. The latter name comes from the fact that mini lathes are often used to turn handcrafted custom pens.

Disclaimer: As an Amazon affiliate, I may earn a small percentage from qualifying purchases at no extra cost to you.

mini lathe

Mini Lathe Specifications

A mini lathe is a great way to get started and see if you like turning. It is popular among beginner and hobby woodworkers and machinists. Compared to a full-sized lathe, a mini lathe is a scaled-down option. Often these small lathes operate with ⅛ to ½ horsepower (HP) with speeds of 1000-5000 rotation per minute (rpm) and with their smaller cast iron bed construction, usually weigh less than 60 pounds. A full-sized lathe can operate with 2-5 HP, has variable speed options, and with a cast iron or steel bed construction weighs up to 6,000 pounds.

Given these specification differences, a mini lathe can easily sit on a tabletop or workbench, whereas a full-sized lathe sits on a frame or leg mount and requires designated floor space. The max turning diameter for these smaller lathes is 10” whereas the turning diameter for full-sized lathes is 14” and beyond. The standard maximum distance between centers for a mini lathe is 18” compared to 24” or more for a full-sized lathe.

Mini Lathe Safety

When it comes to safety, a mini lathe is generally safer to operate than larger lathes. This is primarily due to the smaller size and power of a mini lathe. Basic lathe safety tips and precautions apply regardless of the machine size.

Mini Lathe Uses

Either lathe size can be used for a variety of purposes and projects. A mini lathe is great for smaller projects and crafts like pens, bowls, table legs, peppermills, bottle stoppers, tool handles and so much more. Bed size, turning diameter, and your imagination are all that limit lathe project possibilities.


In summary, a mini lathe is a great option for beginners and smaller, home workshops. Mini lathes are space-saving and budget-friendly. Once you’ve decided a mini lathe is right for you, next is to determine which type to buy. Depending on projects and budgets you may want either a mini wood lathe or a mini metal lathe. Read on to learn more about these types.

Mini Wood Lathes

mini wood lathe

A mini wood lathe is an excellent choice for beginners. These lathes are popular among novice and experienced turning hobbyists as well. Especially for pen turning, which is a perfect type of project to get started. The term pen lathe generally means a mini wood lathe.

Mini wood lathes can turn wood and resin. This makes them great for turning pens. In addition to pens, mini wood lathes can turn bowls, table legs, peppermills, and a myriad of other crafts. They are not intended to turn metal though.

Due to their specifications, mini wood lathes cannot effectively turn metal. Wood is softer and easier to cut through than metal. Therefore less engine power is needed than a mini metal lathe.

Mini wood lathes are also not designed or set up to turn metal precisely. These lathes have a simpler, more straightforward design than mini metal lathes. Simply put, mini wood lathes have a headstock, tailstock, bed, and tool rest. Hand tools are all that are needed to craft workpieces, as opposed to dialing controls to operate a metal lathe. There are fewer parts and attachments to a mini wood lathe. In addition to their slightly smaller size and weight, this can make them safer to operate and easier to maintain than mini metal lathes.

How to Choose a Mini Wood Lathe

Does a mini wood lathe sound like the right fit for you? Check out our comprehensive guide to buying a wood lathe. Ready to buy? Here is our updated list of this year’s 8 best mini wood lathes.

Mini Metal Lathes

mini metal lathe

With the added ability to turn metal, mini metal lathes tend to be slightly larger and require more power than mini wood lathes. These lathes also have a more complex design than their wood counterparts. Like mini wood lathes, these machines have a headstock, tailstock, and bed. While mini wood lathes have a tool rest, mini metal lathes have a carriage. This assembly effectively holds the tools for you. And provides the ability to dial the tools in providing a level of detail and precision a mini wood lathe cannot. However, this added part does add to the bulkiness, safety measures, and maintenance needs of a metal wood lathe.

How to Choose a Mini Metal Lathe 

Are you ready to buy a mini metal lathe? Review our guide to buying metal lathes. And then check out our detailed reviews of our top 8 recommended best mini metal lathes.

If you’re still undecided, take a deeper look at wood lathes vs. metal lathes.

Turn Big Small, Turn Safe. Welcome to the turning world!